Chunking for Learning and Differentiation

Chunking is a simple idea.  The teacher breaks information and processes into smaller chunks that are easier for students to digest.  Reviewing each chunk before moving on to the next, also helps students to both remember and connect various chunks, eventually forming a big picture concept or entire process. This fits into Design Question 2 in the Art and Science of Teaching (click here to read more about this).

The curriculum documents we use already has chunks within subjects, concepts and processes.  When a teacher does their own planning s/he chunk the curriculum into units, weeks and lessons.  The best teachers chunk their lessons into manageable portions as well.  This chunking is a simple idea but a difficult skill to master.

Chunking is also an important teaching strategy for differentiating instruction.  Some students need to work on larger chunks while others need to work on smaller ones.  Some students may need to revise some chunks more than others.  Some students need more opportunities to rehearse a skill or steps in a process.

When assigning tasks for students (whether it’s a practice task, informal note taking or assessment task) chunking makes the task more accessible and achievable.  This is especially true for students with special learning needs.  Michelle from Teach 123 posted about an easy strategy for chunking assignments, click here to check out all the details.

folder cut in sections

Cut flaps in the front of a manilla folder so the student can see only one section of the task sheet at one time.

 

 

I love this folder idea and I know I will be using it in the next few weeks with my students.   Closing the flaps over completed work allows the student to focus only on the work at hand.  For some students this would minimise distractions and help them focus.  Other students may benefit from being able to see how much work or how many chunks they have already completed.  It gives them a sense of achievement and the confidence to continue.  A piece of card moved down the page to reveal one question at a time could work just as well as a folder with several flaps.

exam

Exams spilt into separate pages.

 

A colleague of mine gave her students in a secondary maths class one page of the exam booklet at a time.  Instead of students being presented with a 5 page booklet with an overwhelming number of questions, students worked through 2-5 questions and had a short break before moving to the next page.  Students were also allowed extra time to complete exams and dividing the exam into smaller sections helped them to better manage their time.

Chunking new information into smaller pieces is “just good teaching” and many pedagogical frameworks include this facet of teaching.  This “good teaching” is even more important when working with students who have learning difficulties.  Students who experience any of the following difficulties will benefit from chunking strategies in teaching and modifying tasks.

  • Working Memory Difficulties
  • Executive Function Deficits or Delays
  • ADHD/ADD
  • Receptive Language Difficulties/ impairments
  • Intellectual Impairments/ Disabilities
  • ASD

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How to adjust your worksheets for effective differentiation

All teachers use worksheets.  While we know that using worksheets all the time is not the best teaching practice; we also know that a well constructed worksheet, used purposefully, can be a great tool for independent or scaffolded practice.  Worksheets can also be a valuable formative assessment tool.

Unfortunately, some worksheets involve so much reading (deciphering instructions) that some students are unable to complete them accurately.  Sometimes the worksheet you choose is only appropriate for students who are accomplished readers. Students may give up as they see the task as being “too hard” or teachers see the results and assume that the students do not understand the concept.

How do you adjust worksheets so students with learning difficulties are able to participate and show what they know just like everyone else? Here are some tips!

  1. Blow the photocopy budget

    The size of text on worksheets seems to get smaller every year and students with reading difficulties, dyslexia or vision impairments, are immediately behind the eight ball.  Increase the font and line spacing to make reading instructions and questions as easy as possible.  If supervisors are questioning the amount of photocopying you are doing, tell them it is due to an important strategy for differentiation in your classroom.

  2. Use Different Fonts

    basic fontsInstructions should always be in a bold font while example responses (see tip 3) can be put in italics. This makes it easier to access the text on the worksheet.  Changes to font help students to separate different types of text.  Be warned: too many changes in font type can become very confusing, so ensure that each time the font modulates, from one type/ size to another, it has a clear purpose.

  3. Lead by Example

    Sentence Starters, Modelled Responses and Examples all point students in the right direction.  Students who struggle with receptive and expressive language often don’t know exactly how to put their answer/ knowledge into a format that makes sense to others. Don’t leave them guessing about what you want from them.  Don’t let them use “I didn’t know how to start!” as an excuse for not attempting a task.

    workshet with example

    While this is a worksheet for early years, it is a perfect example of showing students how to complete the tasks.

  4. Use Visual Supports

    Icons for types of questions, small images of required materials and diagrams are all good examples of this.  When appropriate, allow students to draw/ sketch their answers as this will invite reluctant writers to provide an answer.  Your visual learners will thank you too!  Check out my recent post about visuals.

    ten types of visuals

  5.  Don’t use 10 words when 2 will do.

    writer breeds more words than he needsStudents with poor working memory, receptive language difficulties and reading difficulties will struggle to read long directions and questions.  So keep it brief and clear.  A great way to check if your directions are clear is to ask a friend to read it and see if they know what to do.  A friend who isn’t a teacher is the best person to ask.  This ties in well with the Rule of 7 Lesson Planning Challenge!

Admittedly, it is difficult to make all of these adjustments to every worksheet you use in a week.  This is especially true if you are teaching a course you have taught before and you are hoping to re-use the resources.  Each week, I aim to adjust one worksheet/ activity for each class that I teach.  By the end of the semester I have at least 20 modified worksheets that I can use next semester.  I can adjust one worksheet a week next time I teach the course as well.  Every semester the students in my class have different needs so it makes sense that some of the materials will need to be adapted to accommodate them.

There is so much you can do to support the diverse needs in your class.  The ones above will make written materials so much easier to access for most of the students in your class whether their specific needs are related to difficulties with vision, reading, comprehension or even intellectual disability.

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Differentiation Using Visual Aids

Everyone knows that using visual aids when presenting information is a good strategy.  Everyone from businessmen to teachers know how effective visual aids are when you want to grab the attention of your audience.  We all know that there are some things that are just easier to explain with a picture or a drawing.  We all know that.

10 20 80 hear read and see

Even though we know it, this infographic supports my point.  It is  better to use visuals in our lessons and in the materials we use (i.e. worksheets etc).

 

Most Primary School Classrooms are filled with visual aids and concrete materials that teachers use.  We use posters for rules and routines.  We have big and colourful word walls with pictures to support new vocabulary.  We display flow charts and diagrams and photographs and symbols to remind students of lessons we have taught.  Primary School Teachers tend to use visual aids all the time.The fact is that students are more likely to retain the information presented in class if it is repeated in different ways (including words and visuals).

Secondary School Teachers are less likely to use visual support.  Why is that?

I don’t need to convince you that using visual aids is just good teaching.  You might be wondering how using visual aids in the classroom is a differentiation strategy.  Here are some examples.

  1. Visual Prompts for classroom rules/ routines: I have told you about how I display my class rules/ routines. Photos of students following the rules and carrying out routines makes rules clearer to students.  Seeing what is expected is a better reminder than being repeatedly nagged by the teacher repeating the rules.  This is especially true for students with autism.

    Stop Look Listen Visual Prompt

    I use this when teaching and rehearsing our attention getting signal. I ding a bell then point to the sign.

  2. Icons on Worksheets: when I create maths worksheets I include a small image of a calculator.  If the calculator is in a circle and crossed out, students know they are not allowed to use a calculator.  If the calculator has nothing around it or over it, the students know they can use their calculator.  My students who struggle with reading can see quickly and easily if they are allowed to use a  calculator.

    calculator circled

    The calculator icon is circled in red.

  3. Icons/ Colour Coding on Teaching Slides: I use a bold font in green for instructions (or questions students need to answer).  If there is information that students need to copy into their note books, I use a different font in purple or blue and a small picture of a pen.  This highlights text for students with dyslexia and students who get overwhelmed with large amounts of text.

    teaching slide independent task

    This slide includes the directions for an independent task that students complete at the beginning of the lesson.

  4. Illustrating Vocabulary Words: insert images on your handouts so technical language is clearer to students or have students draw images beside vocabulary words and definitions.  This will help them to understand and remember the meaning of the new vocabulary.  This also provides an opportunity for your visual thinkers to show what they know.

    Word Wall Term 1 2014

    This colourful Word Wall includes words with definitions that students have illustrated for display.

  5. Visual Aids Displaying the steps of a process taught in class.  Check out this teaching slide where the teacher has highlighted the buttons on the calculator that students need to use when entering an addition or subtraction equation.  This strategy is vital when teaching students with speech and language difficulties (especially receptive language), difficulties with executive function and problems with working memory.
subtraction teaching slide calculator

This slide was used to support the teaching activity, and then it was printed out on large paper and displayed in the classroom for students to refer to during future lessons.

 

The bonus reason for using visual aids in your classroom is that it will make it so much easier to achieve the Rule of 7 Lesson Planning Challenge.  The more images you use, the less words you will need!

 

Let us know in the comments if there other ways you use visuals to support your students with learning difficulties.  Happy Teaching and Differentiating!

 

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Another Great Resource: Teacher Pop

Another Pinterest find, the Teacher Pop blog is hosted by Teach for America and designed to give quick tips for new teachers.  There are also links to other resources that teachers can find useful.  Writers of Teacher Pop are practicing teachers and I give most credence to those who are “in the trenches” just like me.  Topics include everything from rules and routines and setting up the classroom to lesson planning and adjusting for special needs.

Two of their best articles are linked below.  They are well written, to the point and include valuable information that every teacher – new or not – needs to keep in mind when adjusting their classroom practice to suit the special needs of their students.  I recommend checking these out.

Teaching Students with Autism

Accommodations for students with ADHD

Happy Reading and Teaching

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Diamante Poetry: Writing with Word Types

This form of poetry can be challenging, but once your students get the idea they will benefit from using the form to write about different topics.  Check this out.

Diamante is a seven line poem where the theme or topic of the poem ends opposite to the opening topic.  This is an excellent activity for students to use their knowledge of synonyms and antonyms.  When published and displayed around the room they also provide environmental print for students to use during other writing activities.  This form is more difficult than it seems so teachers should provide appropriate scaffolding for students, throughout the writing process.


Line 1 – Name (Noun) Theme/Object
Line 2 – Two adjectives describing the noun in line 1.
Line 3 – Three participles (-ing or -ed), relating to line 1 and 2 of the poem.
Line 4 – Four nouns (2 referring to the noun in line 1 and the other 2 referring to line 7).
Line 5 – Three participles (relating to the noun in line 7)
Line 6 – Two adjectives (describing the noun in line 7)
Line 7 – Noun (names the Theme or object which is the opposite of the noun in line 1)
This particular outline is good for teachers but certainly not what I would show my students.   Start with example Diamante’s and deconstruct them with your students.  Model how to write one of these poems by using student suggestions for words.  If you want students to write their own poems, provide a topic and have students work in small groups to list nouns, verbs, adjectives, antonyms and synonyms relative to the topic.  This will make the writing process much faster.  Here are some examples. 

Children
Young, energetic.
Growing, playing, learning.
Boys, girls. Dads, mums.
Loving, working, providing.
Grown, tired.
Parents


Day
Light, lively.
Awakened, Shining, Revealed.
Sun, Rainbows. Moon, Stars
Sleeping, Darkened, Covering.
Lonely, Quiet
Night.
Enjoy the writing process with these poems and give students opportunities to display them in interesting ways.
This post first appeared on A Great Title but has been updated as of 18 April 2016.(http://agreattitle.blogspot.com.au/2011/02/diamante-poem-of-opposites.html)
You might find these FREE resources useful – see below.  Please note that I did not create any of these resources, they have been created by some fantastic teachers who sell on Teachers Pay Teachers.  Make sure you provide feedback if you choose to download one or more of these.
Happy Writing
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